I, William Byram Pace, was born Feb. 9, 1832 near Murfreesboro, Rutherford Co., Tennessee. My father, James Edward Pace [1811-1888] was the son of James Pace [1778-1814 or 1815] who was Captain of a light horse cavalry and went with his company to the support of General Andrew Jackson. He was killed at the Battle of New Orleans, 23 Dec. 1815, Louisiana.
My father was a thorough farmer and spent most of his time on a farm except the six years we lived in Nauvoo and he was policeman or life guard for Joseph Smith, the Prophet, and for Brigham Young, his successor. My mother, Lucinda Gibson Strickland [1805-1879] was a daughter of Judge Warren Gibson Strickland [1779-1846] and Mary "Polly" Anderson Strickland [1781-1834]. mother was highly accomplished and well educated and the source from which I received my early training in music, arithmetic, grammar, as well as the rudiments of education. When I was two years old, my parents, with Judge Strickland and others, moved to Shelby Co., Ill., and established themselves on farms, where I grew up to be seven years old. My earliest recollection being mixed up with trying to help drive a prairie team of five or six yoke of oxen in breaking up the rolling prairie of which Illinois was so justly celebrated.
About the year 1838 my parents joined the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, and early in the Spring of 1840 they moved to Nauvoo, Hancock Co., Illinois, where I was baptized into the said Church in April 1840, being about two month over eight years old. Upon our arrival at Nauvoo, we camped on the outskirts of the town. after dinner my father proposed going down into town and call on the Prophet Joseph Smith. I, boy like insisted upon going along too, which was finally agreed upon. We had not gone far when I heartily wished myself back in camp, for all of the boys my size and larger in the neighborhood seemed to be following us. I suppose I looked like a country jake to them and they wanted to pick a quarrel. This did not quite suit my idea of right, so I kept close to my father and tried not to notice them, until their taunts were noticed by my father.
Father stopped suddenly and picking out one of the largest boys among them (a crowd of about twenty), told me if I did not give that fellow a whipping he would give me one when we got back to camp. Here was a dilemma. I had been raised thus far in the country where I had been taught that fighting was wrong. I did not relish two whippings so there seemed no other alternative only to pitch in and do my best. By accident I managed to knock or push the fellow down. Then using my advantage, jumped on him, but he soon cried enough and I let him up. This was my first introduction into a town and I had no further trouble with them after that. I mention this as showing that the boys were up to date at that remote period.
The first two years in Nauvoo were mostly spent in school after which there was more or less excitement about mob violence in the settlements near around. As a precautionary the "Legion" was inspected, Silver Greys were reorganized and armed with slings, haversacks and cobble stones, and added for defense. All the boys from eight years up (not capable of bearing arms) were organized into what was called boy companies to learn drill and discipline and attached to the Nauvoo Legion as "reserves". This was no paper hat boy play, but sober reality. The companies were invariably uniformed with white pants, a kind of blouse or sailor shirt, sailor hat and wooden guns made so they would snap at the command of "Fire". At this organization I was duly elected Captain of one of the Companies of "Fifty" and commenced my career in the celebrated Nauvoo Legion when I was ten years old. My father being an expert drill master, I was soon initiated into all of the mysteries of drill and command. As soon as I got over my scare I managed very well.
I recall the names of a few only of the boys that figured prominently in these companies: Wm. Kimball, Henry P. Richards, Nelson A. Empy, Joseph Smith Jr. son of the prophet, William H. Cluff, Benjamin Cluff, Abram Hatch, and John R. Murdock, most of whom are or have recently occupied prominent places in the Church but now released on account of old age. In about one year I was taken out of the company and sent to Edward P. Desettes drumming school where I found Jesse Earl, H. P. Richard, N. A. Empy and others learning to drum. In a few weeks we were assigned to the Nauvoo Legion Marshall Band and did service there during the remaining days of Nauvoo. Much drill and guard duty was required of the Band such as field playing nearly every day or staying at Headquarters and beating the alarm at night if needed. Being a boy with no particular family cares, I came in for much of the later; hence, my associates almost from this time became men and not boys.
The summer the Prophet Joseph was killed I was twelve years old the previous February, yet the scenes of those days are vividly fresh to my mind as if done yesterday. During that season I was on duty almost the entire time, was present on the Square when the Prophet addressed the Nauvoo Legion on the importance of obeying the Governors requisition for the public arms on 22 June 1844, a synopsis of which I here insert for it's preservation:
"Brethren, we will give up our arms as the governor requires. We will give to them that asketh of us and trust in the lord for future welfare. I wish to tender you as soldiers and citizens under my command, as your general, you have done your duty faithfully in guarding this city and in guarding and preserving the lives of the people as well as mine, in a special manner, for I have seen you on duty without shoes and comfortable clothing and if I had the means to buy or could obtain those necessary things for you I would gladly do it but I cannot mortgage any of my property to get one dollar.
"But I will say this that you will be called the first Elders of the church and your mission will be to the nations of the Earth. You will gather many people into the fastnesses of the Rocky Mountains as a center for the gathering of the people and you will be faithful because you have been true and many of those who come in under your ministry, on account of their much learning, (will) seek for high places and they will set up and raise themselves to eminence above you but you will walk in low places unnoticed and you will know all that transpires in their minds and those that are your friends are my friends.
"This I will promise you that when I come again to lead you forth for I go to prepare a place for you so that where I am you will be.
"I now dismiss you with my blessings to home.
The last discourse that Joseph Smith delivered in Nauvoo on the top of a frame building close to the Nauvoo house on the 24th of June 1844. Laying his hand on the head of Levi W. Hancock saying:
"This day the lord has shown me that which He has never shown me before: that I have thousands of friends that never pretended friendship, while others have sought to crawl into my bosom on account of my good feelings towards them and now they are vipers and seek my life and if they shall take it, they will pursue you. They will do it anyhow. When you are obliged to fight, be sure that you do not stain your hands in the blood of women and children, and when your enemies call for quarters be sure you grant them the same and then you will gain power over the world and you will be forever called the Nauvoo Legion, and as I have had the honor of being your General and leader I feel to say a few words for your comfort and wish to ascertain your interest and faith in your future mission of life that you are engaged in, even the same cause which the power of the priesthood sealed upon you and your callings to minister life and salvation to all nations on the face of the earth although things appear at the present bad.
"The work of our enemies that they hold at the present time overwhelming over us, but I will liken these things to a wheel of fortune. If we are at this time under the wheel it is sure to be rolling on, as sure will the saints be on top of this great wheel if they hold on the object in view.
"Our enemies are after me to trust myself amongst them by their crouching the honor of the state by the governor and authorities of Illinois.
"I will therefore say unto you as saints and as elders of Israel, be not troubled nor give yourselves uneasiness so as to make rash moves by which you may be cut short in your preaching the Gospel to this generation for you will be called upon to go forth and call upon the free men from Maine to gather themselves to the strongholds of the Rocky Mountains and the red men from the west and all people from the south and from the north and from the east to go to the west and establish themselves in the stronghold of their gathering places and there you will gather the red men to their center from their scattered and dispersed situation to become the strong arm of Jehovah, who will be a strong bulwark of protection from your foes.
"These things I feel to tell you before hand that you may always be ready for your duty for at this time I need the best of friends to stand by me and on this occasion I would like to know of you all by your answering Yes or No, "Are you willing to lay down your lives for me?"
(Pause) Then the answer was with a unanimous voice, "Yes"
"I am your father. Shall I not be your father?"
When all with one exclamation said, "Yes".
When again he said, "I am willing to lay down my life for you and if innocent blood is spilt on this occasion, (drawing his sword out of it's scabbard and raising it above his head) I will call the Gods to bear witness of this. I will draw my sword and it shall never be sheathed again until vengeance is taken upon your enemies and I will call upon the Eternal in your defense, the winds with the whirl-winds, the thunders and the lightnings, and the hailstorms. The heavens shall tremble and with earth-quakes shall the earth be shaken, and the seas heaving beyond their bound. These things shall be brought to bear against your enemies for your preservation, as the people of the Lord.
"We have given up our arms, and they have taken away your right of protection, by our city charter; and now they desire that I surrender myself into their hands, which I have consented to do. I only go to return to you again.."
With his blessing upon us we were dismissed to go home.
I am indebted to Alfred Bell of Lehi, Utah for the above two sermons taken on the spot by him and supposed to be very correct.
The next event of note was the arrival of Sidney Rigdon, Brigham Young and the Twelve, who were absent at the Prophet's death, and the struggle that followed. Sidney Rigdon spent, what seemed to me, hours, haranguing the people on the importance of making him their leader, after which Brigham Young arose and said only a word, when it was observed by the whole congregation that the "mantle of Joseph" was upon him, in word, in gesture and appearance. The people arose en'masse to their feet astonished, as it appeared that Joseph had returned and was speaking to the ;people. I was small and got upon a bench that I might more fully witness the "Phenomena". there was no longer any question as to who should be the leader.
Work on the temple was then completed by instruction of the Twelve under Brigham, endowments were given to many thousands, and preparations made to go West to appease the mob element that was raging around Nauvoo.
In the meantime, the mob element exercised such an influence on the Governor and Legislature that they repealed the city Charter of Nauvoo and left us without any city government, or any means of controlling the rougher element, hence the town was soon overrun with all manner of ruffians from the mob camps round about.
As we had no authority to arrest or to protect the town, the boys resorted to "whistling" That is, every boy generally could whistle and most of them had knives from ten to fourteen inches long in scabbards, "al-la-buoy", and when any of those fellows became boisterous, or showed any signs of meddling, the boy discovering it would draw his knife and commence whittling and whistling. Soon a crowd of his palls gathered, then they would surround the obnoxious element, be he large or small, many or few, and whistle and whittle in his direction and stick by him until he was out of town.
This lasted but a few weeks when it became apparent that to go into Nauvoo, men must mind their own business and not meddle with the people, or they would get whistled out. This was rather an amusing process, not a word was spoken, but an unearthly whistle, (and generally every boy had his own favorite tune) and an incessant whittling with those large knives was enough to strike terror to the heart of the victim and he got out of town as quick as his legs could carry him. Remember, the City Charter was taken away and there was no law against whittling and whistling and when fifty or a hundred boys got after the victim there was no protection and he had to "git".
On the first of February 1846, the people began to cross the Mississippi River and rendezvous on what was called Sugar Creek about six miles from the River. I think it was on the 6th of February that my parents crossed and camped on the said Sugar Creek with a two horse wagon loaded with such necessities as we could take, leaving the balance with good comfortable homes (houses and lands) to the mob, for which no recompense as ever been recovered.
Our camp was made in the snow about eight inches deep and was a rather uncomfortable introduction into camp life, with our tent or any shelter save it be a wagon cover made of common sheeting. Here we stayed for some time, waiting for the arrival for all those who could supply themselves with teams. At length the companies were organized and began moving west through mud and slush. Several days were consumed in reaching Bonaparte on the Des Moines River, a distance of probably forty miles.
Here we crossed the river and moved out into hills which were interspersed with many nice farms. Soon it became apparent that the camp was getting short of provisions, hence a halt was made and some went over the Missouri line. All, however, found work, and were paid literally in corn, meat, bacon and potatoes, the produce of the country. As soon as the larder was replenished the camp was moved onto Chariton River where we encountered a series of storms and were compelled to lay over several days. Here I saw the first timber cut down to browse the animals in lieu of hay.
From here we moved on through rolling hills and wild uninhabited prairie land to a place called "Garden Grove" where it was decided to make a temporary settlement, raise a crop, and send the teams back to help others to leave Nauvoo. A few were selected for this purpose, and the camp moved on to a place about forty miles. They designated it Mt. Pisgah, and here my parents stopped with others, built some log houses and prepared to raise a crop, sending their teams back to help others while the main body of the camp moved on the Council Bluffs on the Missouri River.
Here they were overtaken by Capt. Allen of the U. S. Dragoons with a requisition from the President of the U. S. for five hundred men to form a Battalion of Infantry and march through and be discharged in California at the expiration of one year. Brigham came back to Mt. Pisgah, called upon my father and others to volunteer, which they did, and on the sixteenth of July, the now famous Mormon Battalion was mustered into the service of the United States and started for Mexico via Santa Fe.
In the organization my father was elected first Lieutenant, Co. E and was, therefore, entitled to a servant at $15.00 per month. Pursuing his usual economy he concluded to take me to fill that position. As I was too young to enlist, he got a furlough from Col. Allen and came back to Mt. Pisgah for me. And thus I became identified with the Mormon Battalion. Crossing the country we overtook the Battalion at St. Joseph, Mo.
On approaching Western Missouri, Col. Allen being desirous of showing off his Mormon boys to the Missourians, selected Levi U. Hancock, Elisha Averet as fifers and Jesse Earl and myself as drummers, at the head of the command. Being two of the smallest boys in the Battalion (about 14 1/2 years old) we were very conspicuous. However, I do not recollect of ever feeling prouder or weighing more in my imagination in life that on that occasion, though I have since figured conspicuously before the people as General and as member of the Legislature, Etc.
The march through the city and suburbs was about three miles of continuous beating, so when we were through we were as wet as drowned rats from perspiration. Yet it paid in vanity for many callers at Ft. Leavenworth the next day requested introduction to those two little boys that drummed through the city of Western Missouri.
The Battalion was fitted out with teams, wagons, old flintlocks, and bayonets at Ft. Leavenworth and set out for Santa Fe on foot, a march of over one thousand miles. They had only made a few miles and camped when it was learned that Col. Allen was dangerously ill in the fort. The next day brought word that he was dead. Here was an unforeseen difficulty. The command legitimately belonged to Col. Jefferson Hunt of Co. A but after a council of war it was decided that Lieutenant James Pace, my father, was to return to Council Bluffs, see Pres. Young, report progress and ask advice, etc.
He started alone leaving me in care of Lieutenant Andrew Lytle. We moved on to Hurricane Ridge (so called from a violent storm that overtook us here demolishing tents and spreading havoc in camp so that we were compelled to lay-by for repairs). Here we were overtaken by Lieutenant Smith of the U.S. Dragoons and a Dr. Sanderson. Smith claimed the command and a second council of war gave it to him through the modesty of Captain Hunt who declined. The next day Smith assumed command and the Battalion moved forward, nothing further of note occurring.
At the crossing of the Arkansas River, my father accompanied by John D. Lee and Howard Egan, overtook the Battalion bringing new from the Bluffs. Here we shipped water mostly in vinegar barrels to do us across the Semirone Desert, ninety miles. Much suffering followed yet we got through safe and finally arrived in Santa Fe where we lay in camp several days.
Here the Battalion was divided. All the sick and most of the women were sent back to Pueblo on the outskirts of Mexico under command of Capt. James Brown of Company C The Battalion was placed under command of Lt. Col. Philip St. George Cook and ordered to make a forced march through to California to the support of Gen. Kearny who had already gone there with only one company of Dragoons, with pack mules.
I am at a loss as to dates, but as this is my history, and not that of the Battalion I must be excused for every digression of positive data. Memory says it was some time in October 1846, we left Santa Fe with teams to make a forced march through to San Diego, Southern California. When about five miles out of Santa Fe (in sight of abundance of government supplies) we camped and were place on "half rations". Our line of march took us through Albuquerque, Soccorro and many small Mexican settlements where we could buy onions and many other garden productions that added to our half rations, and helped to keep us in fair spirits.
On the River De Norte another detachment was selected and sent back to Pueblo under Lieutenant Willis, leaving the Battalion only about three hundred strong. Then we soon turned west, leaving civilization, as it were, into the wilds of the desert, making our own roads and letting our wagons down over mountain sides with ropes as circumstances demanded. On arriving on the San Pedro River, our rations were getting low in the extreme. Many were actually suffering for want of supplies. There is a vast difference in men as to there ability of endurance under such circumstances, some can endure all manner of hardships on half quarter rations, while others require more.
Hunting parties were sent out in search of game but the country was so poor little was accomplished until after we reached the San Pedro. Here we encountered wild cattle, and laid in an immense supply of beef. While traveling down this river, some of us engaged in fishing. A battle royal seemed to be raging in the command. In order to ascertain what was the matter we simultaneously took to trees, when to our astonishment, the whole command was engaged in a general "bull-fight". It appears that a large herd of wild cattle were enjoying a quiet "siesta" in the tall grass along the San Pedro, when the command came in and surprised them. Result, an open battle in which several mules were killed in the teams. Five or six men were sounded by being gored and tossed fifteen or twenty feet in the air, some of them seriously, and an innumerable number of wild cattle lay dead on the ground. After the smoke was cleared away, the wounded care for, camp was make and a fresh lot of meat added to our rations. This was the famous Bull fight of the San Pedro and proved to be the only battle the Battalion engaged in during their term of enlistment.
We traveled a few miles farther down the river when our scouts returned and reported one of their number arrested and held in custody by the Sonora Commanding Officer at Tucson, also instructions to Col. Cook to keep around to the north or he would serve the whole command the same. Here was an unexpected dilemma. We could only muster about three hundred men and the idea of attacking the whole army of the province of Sonora Mexico would seem absurd. Yet, Col. Cook made camp, issued a large supply of ammunition, put the men on drill in the afternoon, then decided to go by Tucson and "see if they would put his whole command under arrest".
Consequently the next day found us enmarch for Tucson, a distance of about sixty miles. Teams worn and jaded could not make much more than twenty miles a day. At our first camp we were met by an officer of the Mexican Army in Tucson and a posse with a request not to come through Tucson, but to keep around to the north and we would not be molested.
Learning that one on the General's sons was in the posse, Col. Cook placed him under a strong guard, then told the officer of the posse to go back to his General and tell him that he, Col. Cook was on the road to California, that he would pass through Tucson, that if our scout was not returned to him before midnight he would execute his son, then go after our scout. Hence a little before midnight of the day specified the scout was returned and the son released.
The next day the Battalion marched into Tucson and found it evacuated by several hundred cavalry, infantry and artillery. The people were friendly and contributed much by way of beans, corn and fruit for which they took all they could get. We stayed here one day and replenished our mules, seized some government wheat, beans, etc. Had a false alarm at night which aroused the camp but hurt no one. It was learned afterwards that our picket had fired on a herd of cattle in the night killing one, supposing them to be cavalry, causing the alarm.
From Tucson we had to cross a ninety mile desert, consequently we started in the afternoon. When we were fairly on our way the Mexican troops returned to Tucson, then followed us, I suppose, intending to give us battle by night. Col. Cook marched late, built fires as if to camp, then moved on three or four miles, built another fire, then moved on and camped without a fire. From deserters we learned that the Mexicans, being reinforced from neighboring posts decided to catch us on the desert. That they came and surrounded the second "campfire" but not finding us went back, thus we probably escaped being annihilated, another evidence of Devine Providence in our behalf.
We arrived on the Gila River, safe from the desert and had a feast of watermelons, at the Pima Indian Village on Christmas Day 1846. Lieutenant Rosecrance said he enjoyed a piece of roasted "rattlesnake" same day and place.
From here we traveled down the south bank of the Gila River to the Colorado River without any particular mishap save it be toiling through excessive sands and an effort to boat some of our baggage down the Gila River in some of the zink Government wagon boxes that resulted in a failure, in the stranding of the wagon-boxes on some sand bars of the Gila and the loss of the boxes and cargo (provisions), thus shortening our rations again.
On reaching the Colorado River a day was spent in fixing up some more zinc wagon boxes with view of having to ferry the river. The boats were made ready and loaded, and run aground, then it was discovered that by wading, the boats could be got across. Then the teams were hitched up and the river forded before night, thus saving several days in ferrying. From here we entered upon another ninety mile desert. Water was, however, obtained in two places by digging, sufficient for the camp.
On reaching the main chain, or California Mountains, we followed up a wash until it became too narrow for our wagons. Not being able to get out, there was no alternative except to hew our way through which was done and we arrived at Warner's Ranch, the first settlement in California on the 8th of January 1847, got a fresh supply of beef and fared luxuriously on beef alone. From this place to San Diego our road was interspersed with many difficulties but were overcome.
At San Louis Rey we had our first view of the Pacific Ocean. The country was green with wild oats and mustard. The hills were covered with fat cattle which proved our salvation, as there was no flour in the land until Commodore Stockton brought it from the Sandwich Islands some three months later. Hence, our beef rations grew to seven pounds per day before we got any bread, coffee and accompaniments.
When we reached San Diego, on the coast, Gen.. Kearny was gone to Monterey, leaving orders for the Battalion to retrace their steps to San Louis Rey Mission and take up Quarters. After a days rest, spent mostly on the beach, we took up the line of march for San Louis Rey where we were quartered for several months with nothing to do except eat beef and drill two hours forenoon and two hours afternoon. Here, though not required to do any military duty I found it a pleasure to borrow a gun from a sick man, and join in the "drill" from which I obtained a fair knowledge of infantry tactics that became very useful to me in after years.
Here we also demonstrated the fact that a man can make away with seven pounds of beef a day when reduced to beef alone, as we were for several months before supplies came from the Sandwich Islands. We had roast beef, boiled beef, fried beef and every other kind of beef then known at once.
There was some trouble came to the surface between Gen. Kearny and Fremont resulting in Fremont's arrest and the Battalion being moved from San Louis Rey to Los Angeles. Then the taking possession of many pieces of ordinance in the hands of Fremont's men at San Gabriel Mission 12 miles from Los Angeles. Fremont was charged, among other things, with stirring up a conspiracy with the Spaniards against the Mormon Battalion. Still holding forth some of his mobocratic spleen against the Mormons. But, as usual, he signally failed and was taken back to the States under guard of members of the Mormon Battalion. Kearny's death soon after they reached the States caused proceedings to cease and he struggled hard to become great during the Rebellion but failed and died a pauper. Thus it will be, to every man who tries to injure the cause or prejudice the minds of strangers against the Latter-Day-Saints.
In June, I think, there was a report of an uprising of the Spaniards through out California. Whether true or not, the Battalion was concentrated on the Bend above Los Angeles and "breast works" were built around the camp. Company B was sent to Garrison San Diego and everything prepared for a fight but it did not come.
The only thing of note, I remember, that came of this was John Allen, a "Deserter reputed", who joined the Battalion at Fort Levenworth, was sent out on Picket Duty during the most exciting time. Well, he left his post, came into town, traded off his gun and accouterments for wine, got drunk and was found next day in an Indian 'rancherie' by and officer of the guard. He was court-martialed and sentenced to have his head "shaved" and be drummed out of the service. Being requested, I joined the Drum Corps and assisted in drumming him out of camp and out of town.
For information of those that never saw a man "Drummed out" I will say he was a tall well proportioned man with a heavy beard, one-half of which and one-half of the hair of his head, was shaved clean, leaving the remainder to show up. He was then brought on the parade ground by the guard (a file of soldiers), the band was formed and sentence of the court-martial was read to him. Then it became the duty of the Fifers and Drummers to play the "Rogues March" until he was well out of camp and out of town. Then he was turned loose with instructions to leave the country and never be seen or he would be subject to arrest and be shot on sight.
About the first of July 1847 we began to prepare to return to Council Bluffs, or where-ever the main body of the Church was. Horses, mules and saddles were being bought. A well broken riding horse would cost from $3.00 to $6.00, mules less and Broncho's for $1.00. Saddles were scarce and cost more.
On the 16 July 1847 the famous Mormon Battalion was mustered out of service of the united States and Honorably Discharged. A few young men re-enlisted for six months to help guard the country until more troops could arrive by water. But the main body of the Mormon Battalion organized under James Pace and Andrew Lyttle as Captains and prepared to return.
Again I am at a loss for dates, but memory says about the 20th of July 1847 we set out for the Missouri River or to find the main body of the Church, whether it be in the Rocky mountain, in Oregon or yet on the banks of the Missouri where we left it.
We journeyed to Gen. Pico's Ranch, about 40 miles, many had wild animals, unbroken, and the number of the stampedes and demolishing of Packs was immense. Especially for the first day, some losing their entire outfit and had to replenish at Pico's. At Gen. Peco's we bought two or three hundred head of Beef Cattle thinking we could drive them, but after a few days effort and losing many it was decided best to kill them and jerk the meat, and try to pack it as our animals were becoming accustomed to their loads. Hence camp was made, scaffolds built, then a wholesale slaughter commenced which lasted two or three days.
After the slaughter we packed up and moved by way of Tulare Valley. Here we encountered hostile Indians, though by an effort they were brought into camp where a funeral pow-wow ensued. During which Father [James Stephens] Brown, an aged veteran of the Battalion, spoke in Tongues at some length, which proved to be understood by the Indians. After which they could not do too much for us, guarding our animals and helping us across the San Joaquin River which was swollen and had to be rafted.
We finally reached Sutter's Fort, a trading post on the American and Sacramento Rivers. There was an American settlement near by and great inducements were offered for laborers, consequently those having jaded animals were induced to stop over winter. Among these was Henry W, Bigler, Wilford Hudson and others who during the winter were conspicuous in discovering gold in California
From Sutters Fort we took the Truckee River route across the Sierra Nevada Mountains, on the summit of which we met Samuel Brannon direct from Salt Lake Valley. He informed us that the Church had established Head Quarters in Salt Lake, that the Pioneers had returned to the Missouri River, but several companies were in the valley and more coming this year. This was the first reliable word we had received of the Church's where-abouts which was enthusiastically welcomed.
Brannon was the man that had charge of a company of Saints that sailed in the Ship Brooklyn from New York in 1846 to California, anticipating that the Church would gather to Oregon. His visit to meet President Young was to induce him to settle in California. Failing in this he was returning "solitary and alone" (and very indignant because of his failure) to his home in San Francisco where he soon became very rich. He refused to gather with the Saints in Salt Lake and finally died a pauper.
The next day, I believe, we met Capt. James Brown of the Mormon Battalion and a company of men. You will remember he was sent to Pueblo from Santa Fe. Their term of enlistment having expired they were mustered out of the service, but had to go to California for their pay, hence this trip. From his statement of things in Salt Lake, scarcity of provisions, etc., many not well provided were recommended to go back to California and winter. Hence, many went back with Brown.
The next day we struck the head waters of the Truckee River which we followed to the desert, thence to the Steam Boat Hot Springs on the overland route, thence, to and up the Humbolt River, passing over the Goose Creek Mountain to Snake River and Fort Hall.
Here we left the overland route and struck South (without a trail) for Salt Lake where we arrived during the last days of September 1847, finding the people generally engaged in building a Fort which was at that time about breast high in the highest place. Very little was known about the surrounding country at that time, but all seemed to have an abiding faith in the words of Brigham Young that "this was the place he had seen before he left Nauvoo", and had gone to work in earnest to prepare for winter. The emigration was mostly all in, when we arrived. Many were short of provisions but all seemed sanguine that they would "pull through".
Here some of the Battalion boys found their families or relatives and stopped over. Others were compelled to stop for want of sufficient outfit to cross the Plains, a distance of over a thousand miles, while we had traversed over fifteen hundred miles from Los Angeles via Sutter's Fort and Fort Hall.
Finally a company of between thirty and forty under Lieutenant James Pace began preparing to brave the dangers of crossing the Plains during the winter months. Provisions being scarce in the valley, we were told we could get supplies at Fort Bridger and at Laramie, reasonable, and it would be a great help to the people if we would leave our provisions and replenish on the road. Having a common interest, we unloaded our supplies, taking only what was supposed enough to do us to Fort Bridger, (one hundred and fifteen miles) and moved out late in October.
At the head of Echo Canyon we encountered our first snow storm and the cold seemed to have a chilling effect on the animals as they were from a warmer climate. But before 10 o'clock the next morning it cleared up. The snow soon melted and we were on our way rejoicing. Arriving at Fort Bridger we found they had nothing to sell.
Here we were, over four hundred miles to Fort Laramie and nothing to eat. A council was called consisting of the whole camp. Much time was taken up in trying to decide whether the party in Salt Lake who advised us to leave our supplies and depend on getting more on the road had acted from sinister motives. Whether we were to go back to Salt Lake and fight it out during the winter with the others, or go ahead without anything to eat. However, no one thought for a moment but what we could get what we wanted at Fort Laramie and so it was decided to go ahead and depend on game. This was made more easy by our experience "living on beef alone" when we first arrived in Southern California and that buffalo were supposed to be plenty for our demand.
Well, we started on what proved to be a nine hundred mile jaunt in mid-winter without anything to eat. By scrimping we managed to get over on Sweet Water where we killed a buffalo and fared sumptuously. At length we reached Fort Laramie where we expected relief but when only 24 lbs. of dried Buffalo meat could be had at any price it looked rather blue. We could not now go back. We could not stay nor could we cross the prairie land without something to eat. Another council was called and we decided to go ahead and depend on the Buffalo, so away we went.
Near Scotts Bluffs, about forty miles from Laramie we got a genuine snow storm, freezing nine mules to death and generally demoralizing the balance. Besides, to add to our trouble, the snow which was about eight inches on the level, had covered up the grass and driven the Buffalo to the hills, where, with our jaded animals we could not reach them. But we went on. In the course of the day William Maxwell and others succeeded in wounding an old blind bull that was too decrepit to go off with the rest. After some time was spent they finally killed him, camp was made and Mr. Buffalo utilized. He was roasted on Buffalo chips, fried and boiled, but no matter how cooked, he was pronounced "tough". In fact, a close inspection, made by our scientific man decided him to be one of the Buffalo left by "Noah" from the ark in the early day. But whether Noah passed over this region or not history is very silent. We had now left the timber line and were dependent on , what was termed, "Buffalo Chips" for fuel, and that under eight inches of snow. But we lived and dug out fuel, made fires and roasted the old anti-deluvian bull and moved on.
After many days of starving and roasted bull meat, in frozen snow, we saw the timber on the head of Grand Island in the Platte River. Here one of D. P. Rainey's donkeys decided he would go no farther. After a hurried consultation, I was told to drive him into camp and Grand Island and they would kill him and thus draw the wolves from which we would get our supper. The idea of wolf meat for supper was a great inducement so I willingly consented to try and bring him into camp. The camp moved on and Mr. Donkey seemed to change his mind for he pricked up his ears and took the trail after them, so I had little to do, only follow.
At camp when I arrived, Elisha Averett and Abram Hunsacker took the poor donkey from me, put a rope around his neck and armed with their old flint-lock muskets led him off to the nearest tree where he was shot, hung up and skinned for the benefit of the wolves. But the fact was it froze as fast as the hide was taken off and no wolves were in sight to shoot.
About this time D. Q. Dennett, a very aged veteran, getting tired of waiting for wolves, took his knife and cut off a large piece from the donkey's ribs and threw it on the fire. The stench was immense, the camp was electrified and in a few moments "poor donkey" was on the fire roasting and men cutting off slices and eating it as it cooked.
Here was a discovery. Nobody had thought of eating donkeys or mules until this experience, but after which we always had a mule for supper and no questions asked only that it was the poorest. A few days brought us to the Loup Fork of the Platte and further trouble. The river (a quick-sandy bottom) had frozen over except for a few feet in the center and that was washed out until it was deep enough to float a steamboat. After testing it, we decided to keep down on this side of the river to the Paronee Reservation and there possibly get a boat. But, after three days hard traveling through snow and ice we got opposite the reservation but found it deserted and no boat. Then we had to stop and wait for the river to freeze up.
The weather was intensely cold and the river full of floating ice. By cutting some cottonwood trees and tying them in the channel the mush ice was arrested and began to congeal. But it required around a week before it was considered safe to cross.
On the morning appointed to cross a band of several hundred "Pawnee" Indians pounced down upon us and showed war-like intentions. After coming into camp and finding mule's heads and 'lights' lying around loose they seemed to change their minds, became friendly, took some of the boys home with them, feasted them on fat dog meat then loaded them with corn, wild turkeys, etc. From there to Winter Quarters on the Missouri River we had no further trouble, only wading through snow and slush and eating mules (which by this time had become second nature). We arrived a day or two before Christmas 1847. Here we found all our folks disbanded and settled into quiet life.
Now our troubles appeared to multiply. We could not eat enough to satisfy our appetites without being sick. But finally, after a week or ten days we began to be naturalized and acted as other folks.
Having become acclimated, I took a stroll about town, which I found nicely laid off in streets, but the houses were simply "rude huts" and "dug-outs" located on the west bank of the Missouri River. Every thing had the appearance of a camp yet all was bustle and business. An old fashioned flat-bottomed boat was plying between Winter Quarters and the eastern shore, and there seemed to be much travel. On inquiring, I found that the largest part of the Emigration had located and built the town of Kanesville, Cutterville, Keg Creek and many other settlements on the eastern side of the river. In January my parents moved to a little town called Summer Quarters about half a days drive above Winter Quarters, where we put our mules on what was designated the "Rush Bottoms" of the Missouri River. Here we wintered and in the Spring moved back, crossed the river and moved on a farm near Keg Creek with a view to prepare to move to Salt lake Valley another year. We traded mules for oxen and sent teams across the Plains to help emigration.
Later it fell to my lot to go out on the Plains and drive a team for the "afterwards famous" company of John D. Lee. We traveled in President Young's company and arrived on the upper crossing of the Sweet Water to be near South Pass in September 1848 where we met teams from Salt Lake Valley. Here we unloaded and started back.
I had three yoke of oxen and a wagon to go back with. Nothing of note occurred more than usual, except while encamped at Independence Rock, on the Sweet Water some seventy five head of our oxen managed to elude the guard and started on some time in the night. In the morning, great was the consternation in camp in yoking-up. Some found all of their oxen gone, and as they did not take to the road, but struck through the hills, visions of Indians were seen by some, while others thought they had only strayed away. Finally, this opinion prevailed. We, then divided up and moved camp, while a few of the "brave" took the trail of the oxen.
We traveled on to the North Platte and found our lost oxen and the men awaiting us. They had simply got restless and started on the homeward trip, taking a cut-off through the hills, while we traveled several days around. This proved their instinct was great for home. Of course, we were pleased to get our oxen. We yoked them up and set out for Missouri in joy not having lost any.
On getting home I spent the winter in school and my father went to St. Joseph, Missouri to work for more outfits for the trek to Salt Lake Valley.
In the spring of 1849, not having the necessary outfit, my father deemed it wise to tarry another year. Consequently in the summer of 1849, he moved the family to St. Joseph, Missouri and settled in an old log house about a mile out of town where I got a job cutting hay and hauling it into town and done well for a boy.
In the winter we moved nearer town and my father got work at a good salary in a pork packing house as a civil engineer while I was employed as a roustabout at $1.25. I had not been long at this work before two of the lard cutters got 'drunk' Saturday night and failed to show up Monday morning. When the Boss and owner of the packing house came around he set me to do their work temporarily. I soon cleared the block and kept up easily. When he came back in the afternoon with two men to take their places he asked me where all that lard was. When I told him it was chopped up and in the kettle rendering, he inquired who had helped me. Finding I had done it myself he turned and said, "I have paid two men for years to do that work. If you choose to do it alone your wages will be $2.50 per day". Of course I chose, as it was an easy job to keep up with the trimmers, and I held the job all winter. This shows that while working for an outfit to gather to the Valley, men were often blessed beyond expectations.
In the Spring of 1850 we set out for the valley of the Great Salt Lake. Arriving opposite the mouth of the Platte River my father was elected captain of 100 wagons and after ferrying across the Missouri River, set out on our journey, on the south side of the Platte River with fair outfits.
About 300 miles up the Platte the Cholera struck us and three or four died and were laid to rest by the road-side. This struck with terror, the hearts of the people, but through frequent administrations by a few brave men, the calamity was averted and the Company moved on.
In the Black Hills, I was appointed hunter for the camp, and spent most of my time supplying Buffalo, and antelope for the hungry, and had many thrilling experiences during the season, one, which I will mention. While the company was laying over Sunday in the Black Hills, Alex Sessions and myself made it up the previous night to go out and kill an antelope before breakfast. Sunday was a day of rest, when the grass was good, and the camp generally laid over and held meeting and we should have stayed. But, our boyhood zeal was too great, so we went off by daybreak and tramped over hill and dale until about 10 o'clock without getting even a shot at anything. At last we gave up and started for camp. Passing near some Currant brush in a ravine we thought it probable we would find water to drink, turned in that direction and got water. On starting back I saw a fresh bear track in the sand and said to Alex, "We had better get out of here". Then a large grizzly bear jumped off the cliff above us and landed within 6 feet of where we stood. Not caring for any bear meat at that time, we took to the trail and by a stupendous effort beat him running some 50 yards. Though I had the satisfaction of punching him in the head several times, with my gun, as evidenced by the blood and hair afterwards found.
On reaching the open country Mr. Bear retreated leaving us master of the field, but two of the worst scared boys it was not possible to find anywhere. I had been in many bear fights and succeeded in coming off victorious but this one, some-how, neither of us seemed to want. Possibly because the growl, which was terrible and the manner he had of introducing himself caused us to decide rather quickly, then our legs did the rest. Well, we told it in camp as a narrow escape, which was variously criticized. It is strange how brave some men are when there is no possible danger.
One man, in particular, said if he had been there he would have taken a butcher knife and carved him up. But, you see, neither of us wanted him that bad. However, I remembered this man and a few days later the camp lay by for a general buffalo hunt. My special attention was given this man to go in my crowd and we were successful. On going out we soon came on a few scattering bulls.
With mischief predominant I got them to let me go ahead when I soon wounded a bull by breaking his shoulder and he stopped for a fight. Then I insisted, when the company came up, that my special friend have the honor of killing him. This was agreed to. I told him to walk up to within twenty feet of the bull and shoot him in the head. Well, he got within thirty yards and drew up to shoot when the buffalo made a lunge for him. My friend dropped his gun and took to his heels. Then the crowd had the bad taste to yell, "Run! Take your knife to him", etc. While the bull only made one jump and stood his ground my friend ran two hundred yards at breakneck speed without looking back. The bull was killed by one shot. Then the fun was over. I mention this to show that men who are so awfully brave, where there is no possible danger, will not always do to tie to.
Laying in all the dried buffalo meat we could haul, we moved on with no unusual incident, arriving in Salt Lake Valley near the last of September 1850, and disbanded. Many went north to Ogden, then known as Miles Goodyear's Ranch. The title of which was extinguished by Captain James Brown (of the Mormon Battalion) about this time and the city of Ogden was surveyed.
Others went south to Dry Creek (north end of Utah Valley) where David Evans established the now famed city of Lehi. L. E. Harrington and others were sent to build up American Fork, while my father was sent to Peteetneet Creek in the south end of Utah Valley to locate. Here I had the satisfaction of helping to build the first house, in what is now known as the city of Payson, named for my father, James Pace and son, by Brigham Young in March 1851.
Aaron Johnson and a few others were sent to locate on Hobble Creek where the city of Springville now is situated. Settlements were made in Provo and Manti as early as the Spring of 1849. Provo had some trouble with the Indians in the Winter of '49 and '50 and the fort was moved up on higher land which was only partly accomplished when we arrived.
We landed on Peteetneet Creek about the 20th of October 1850 with only three families, viz.: James Pace and family, Andrew Stewart and family, and Courtland Searle and family. The trouble seemed to be that few would go there on account of the Indians, although all was peace at the time. But, my father had been sent by President Young to colonize this place and so great was his faith that, I presume, he would have gone alone rather than to have failed. We built a double log house with a sod chimney in the middle and were very comfortable. Stewart and Searl turned an Ell to the north. Then we all set up pickets of cottonwood and made a nice little fort so that we wintered nicely.
In December 1850 George A. Smith, with a company, came along on their way to establish settlements in Little Salt Lake Valley where Parowan and Cedar City now stand. Thus settlements were extended through Utah as fast as emigration would justify.
In the Spring others came to Peteetneet. Farms were laid out and water ditches made. But, the first year there was a scarcity of water for eight or ten families and much doubt was expressed as to there being able to build a permanent settlement there for want of water. President Young was appealed to in the course of the summer to settle their differences during which he told them to stop their wrangle, go to work and the water would increase as fast as settlers came. Anybody visiting the city of Payson now (1904) will be able to tell whether the prediction was correct or not.
It was in March 1851 that Amasa Lyman and Charles C. Rich with a large company came along and rendezvoused at Peteetneet on their way to California to colonize and gather the Saints in that land to some place in California. President Young, Kimball and others came up to organized them and were surprised at the number that were going. They stopped over a week at my father's trying to turn them back, as they ere weakening settlements previously built in Utah, but the most of them would go. It seemed that it was the intention of the precedence to send only just enough to be safe on the road from the Indians, and gather from California such as wished to become identified with the Mormon people, but they finally organized and moved on. At this time President Young named Peteetneet Creek 'Payson' after my father, James Pace and son. I suppose out of respect for service rendered in Nauvoo or maybe, in the Mormon Battalion.
While trying to settle the "Lyman-Rich" company we had a dance in a log school house we had recently built, with frontier Puncheon floor and I seemed to be the only chance for music. I had learned to play the Flute under Elisha Averett while out with the Mormon Battalion, but while in St. Joseph, Missouri I found it hurt me to blow the flute. Hence, I had invested in a "six-bit-fiddle" and made some proficiency as a "puncheon floor fiddler". But, it did not suit President Young who stopped, took my fiddle and looked at it, said it was no account but if I would come to his house in Salt lake City he would give me one he had paid $50.00 for. That I was to practice and play for the people, etc. Well, the ball went on and I did my level best during the evening. When the people got home and President Young got home, he had the instrument repaired. When I went to Salt Lake I found it ready. This brought me into some notoriety, and by associating myself with James Stewart, one of the best violinists then in the country, we soon had the run of Salt Lake and the country from there to Payson. I kept it up for years until other public matters made it necessary to quit.
Here I met and fell in love with Epsy Jane Williams, daughter of Alexander Williams, who at that time was very prominent in Church matters in Provo. Well, to be brief, we were married on 25 March 1852 and two months later I was on my way to California with my father-in-law, Alexander Williams and my brother-in-law, Thomas Williams in search of wealth. Well, I have been in search of wealth most of my time ever since, but have not found it. I did not have time to get acquainted with my wife before I left. All was bustle after the "all-mighty-dollar". They seemed to have plenty while I was poor. But, I was enthusiastic over the prospect of immense wealth to be gotten from the California Gold Fields. Of course I would get it - so I figured.
To commence with, they managed to scrape together about 300 head of cattle and several wagons loaded with furs. Some thirty men joined the outfit as teamsters, cow drivers, etc., for their board, so great was their zeal to get there. My position was a kind of third "Boss" I rode a fine horse and was rather looked up to, as I had been over the road before. Sometimes I looked out a camp or done some trifling job.
Well, we got through in June 1852 with fat cattle generally and established a butcher shop on Mormon Island on the American River where it fell my lot to deliver beef to various mining camps for ten or fifteen miles around for twenty-five cents a pound. Other camps were started at Placerville and Nevada cities and a thriving business was the result. Though I was getting one hundred dollars per month for riding around in a buggy, it was too slow. I wanted to get out in the hills and just scoop it up. Finally, during the winter months I got away for a season and went to Placerville, where I joined some boys from Salt Lake and went to mining.
The first day three of us cleared up $88.00, thus we continued a few days, variously from $75.00 to $100.00. Then I took Small Pox and laid up for repairs for three weeks, at the end of which my father-in-law, hearing of my misfortune, visited me. For some reason, at this time, I wanted to go home. I had had enough of California and, while I had about enough money left to take me there, I wanted to go at once. I succeeded in winning over my father-in-law. We agreed to go by water to San Diego, then overland by Los Angeles and the southern route.
Ten days after this we were steaming down the coast for San Diego. Arriving at San Diego we purchased a wagon and a pair of mules, got some supplies and set out for Los Angeles. Here we fell in company with Nathan Adams and brother, bound for American Fork, Utah and Abrams, the Jew, who wished to put on a pair of mules and go through to Salt Lake with us. Buying some goods, we fitted out and started for San Bernardino, seventy five miles distant and the last settlement until we reached Utah. Arriving at San Bernardino I found many old friends, among them John and William McDonald. As we had to lay over here a few days for more company, the McDonalds, myself and a few others gave a minstrel concert, to the no small amusement of the people, who turned out enmasse.
We finally pulled out of San Bernardino with Alexander William, myself, the Adam's, Abrams, the Jew, William Perkins and his wife who were returning from a Mission to the Sandwich Islands, and one other whose name I don't remember, two wagons, eight mules and six riding horses. With this outfit and a goodly supply of provisions we took leave of the good people of San Bernardino and wended our way through the Cahone Pass early in April 1853, and soon reached the Mojave River.
Our trip homeward was without any incidents of moment until we reached the Santa Clara Creek in Utah. On our way we had met Amasa Lyman and Charles C. Rich and a few others at Mountain Springs, about twenty five miles west of Las Vegas. They were on their way back to San Bernardino from Conference in Salt Lake City. They, seeing our numbers few, cautioned us as to Indians from there on, until we reached the settlements. Hence, every precaution that could be, was taken and we moved on slowly. From there to Las Vegas, across the Vegas Desert and all up the Rio Virgin. No sign of Indians until we began to feel safe.
Crossing the Mesa and a chain of mountains we saw no sign of natives. Here we reached the Santa Clara Creek and stopped and turned our animals out for noon, taking no precautions for danger. The cooks went about preparing dinner and Abrams, the Jew, as was his custom when opportunity offered, opened up his pack of goods to give them air, I suppose.
I, being teamster, was doing something about wagons near Abrams. All of a sudden eight or ten Indians came walking into camp. On looking farther, I saw we were completely surrounded by not less than four hundred of the blackest looking Indians nature ever produced.
"Here was a pretty kettle of fish." We were eight strong, poorly armed and one of our number, a woman. It was no use to go after our animals for most of them were already in the possession of the Indians. To say it looked like all was lost, does not express it.
Well, to be brief, all seemed to stand where they were. The Indians, on their way, walked into camp and as Abrams was all unpacked they made him the first call, appropriating some trifling objects and tucking them under their clothing. To this he demurred and drew an old Allen's Pepper-box pistol as if he would annihilate the whole tribe. Standing close by him, it suddenly occurred to me this would not do. Hence, I grabbed for the pistol and at the same time gave him such a shove that he went sprawling over the wagon tongue, dropped the pistol, which I picked up and proposed to empty it into his carcass if he did not keep still.
He was a man that weighed over 200 pounds, while I was rather small. This, or some other power changed the minds of the Indians in a twinkling, for before I had fairly finished with the Jew, the old chief was patting me on the back and saying "Big Captain". Then he jumped on a rock close by and made a speech to the Indians. Presently our animals were driven back and two Indians told to herd them. Then all the natives except the chief and the two herdsmen 'vamoosed' up the road.
The relief from what appeared to be annihilation was great. We, finally, settled down, got our dinners, fed the chief and the two Indians. Then our animals were brought in and we hooked up and pulled out, the chief and the two Indians going with us. About five miles up the creek where the road passed under a cliff, we overhauled the Indians busily engaged removing the obstructions they had place in the road to hinder our progress. It seemed they had calculated on our coming past this place before we stopped for noon. But, having stopped where we first struck the Santa Clara they had concluded they had force enough to over power us there and hence, moved down with the result above stated. The obstructions removed, the old chief made another speech to the Indians and they left us. We drove on to about where the little town of Gunlock now stands and camped.
The old chief and two Indians came into camp, took our animals and made us understand that they would place them on good feed and return them in the morning. We gave them something to eat and trusted them. The old chief, which we learned, was named Tutsagubet, stayed with us as surety, I suppose, for the safe return of the animals.
The next morning our animals came in all right and we drove to the Mountain Meadow (the place notorious for the Lee Massacre) and camped, Tutsgubet and the two Indians still with us. They took our animals as before. The next day we drove to Antelope Springs, the Indians still guarding us, and the next day we came in sight of Cedar City. Tutsagubet said we were safe now and they would go back. We gave them some presents and parted.
In after years I had occasion to organize a mining district in that country which was designated "Tutsagubet Mining District", in honor of the old chief, long since dead. This was the only momento I could make for his kindness in thus saving our lives.
At Cedar City, one of the settlements established by George A. Smith in 1851, we traded for some butter and eggs and fared sumptuously. From here to Provo, the end of our journey, nothing of note occurred, except plenty of high water at Beaver, Sevier and Spanish Fork, which was overcome. We reached Provo safely in May 1853 finding all well, my wife having given birth to a daughter on January 5, 1853, which added to my joy in getting home.
At Payson I met my mother and family. My father had gone to England on a Mission and everything looked like it needed looking after. So I decided to locate there as soon as the Spanish Fork River was passable.
In July 1853 I moved to Payson and intended to settle down as a farmer. I had thirty acres of land, good teams and everything ready to start. My return from California with little or no money made it hard to start.
On the 18th of July Kiel was killed by the Indians and the celebrated "Indian War" followed. women and Children were gathered to the school house in the night and men posted on duty to try and prevent a further disaster, as there were known to be over four hundred Indians within five miles under Chief Walker. But, for some reason they did not come.
The next morning relief came from Provo with Gen. Peter W. Conover in charge, who was the commanding officer of the county. Efforts were made, by him, to get some men away from the saw-mill, some four or five miles distant up the canyon. In doing so they discovered that the Indians had left in the direction of Sanpete County.
As the Sanpete settlement was weak, it became necessary to send them relief. More troops were called from Provo and Springville and an expedition fitted out for Sanpete with Gen. Conover going in charge, leaving a strong guard at Payson under Major David Canfield. I now recall that at the reorganization of the Nauvoo Legion in September 1851, I was duly elected 1st Lieutenant in Company A Payson Cavalry. Though I had not been called for any particular duty, I found that the office with all of its responsibilities were expected of me now that war had broken out. Hence, nearly all of my time for the balance of the season was occupied in army matters.
Not wishing to give a detailed account of the Walker War, I simply say the whole territory of Utah was more or less affected by it. Fort walls were built around every settlement, requiring an immense amount of labor and toil. I sent my wife to Provo, which left me untrammeled for whatever was required.
Late in the Fall, after all was quiet, I went to Provo to move my family back but was induced to remain over winter. In the early spring I made arrangements to go back to Payson and raise a crop. My wife not wishing to return to Payson, I traded my thirty acres of land at that place for an old adobe house and two city lots worth, at that time, probably $75.00, though called $250.00. Then I arranged a partnership with one James Smith and became a "stone and adobe mason" and as building was in order, I done well that season. Late in the autumn of 1854, Smith, myself and Goddard built the first music hall in Provo (28' x 64') and completed it for theaters and dancing that winter and for several winters thereafter.
At the April Conference, April 6, 1855, I was called, with a number of others, to go on a mission "to the Indians" and was, on 30 April 1855, ordained a Seventy, and set apart for my mission by Apostle George A. Smith in the following blessing, reported by John B. Milliner:
In the name of Jesus Christ, and in the Authority of the Holy Priesthood and Apostleship conferred on us, we lay or hands upon thy head, and we set thee apart to go forth as a messenger of the Gospel unto the Lamanites, to be a Savior upon the mountains of Israel unto the redemption of the seed of Joseph, and we say unto thee, be humble and the spirit of the Almighty shall rest upon thee and thou shalt have influence and great power to do good in the redemption of the children of Israel. Thy name shall be had in perpetual remembrance, and thousands shall rejoice in thy testimony. Exercise wisdom and faith, and thy dominions shall increase, thy children shall increase as the sands upon the sea shore. Thou shalt be prepared to inherit eternal glory in Celestial Kingdoms. We seal all these blessings of this mission upon thee in the name of Christ our Redeemer, Amen.
The above was inserted for it's preservation. I have had many blessings before and since the above, all pointing to the same, but have been lost or destroyed.
May 14th 1855 I bid farewell to my wife and home and joined the company that was designated as the Elk Mountain boys destined for Grand River, then the eastern part of Utah, where we were to build a fort and try to civilize the Ute Indians in that vicinity.
At Payson I tried to sell some land to help my family and get some things I needed along the way, but no one seemed to care for land, seeing I was going away, though it was in great demand before I was called. After spending some time, I finally met George Patten who condescended to give me a $10 rifle and one pound of powder for seven and one half acres of land next to the city, worth at that time not less than $75. Now it would bring several thousand, but as I had to have a rifle I was compelled to take it and go as the company had gone ahead the day before.
Thomas Wilson and myself then took the trail for Salt Creek on foot, but succeeded in catching the train at Pungeon Spring (now Willow Creek) at noon. At night camped near Salt Creek. Thomas J. Patten and others from Manti, met and camped with us. I traded guns with Patton and got 100 pounds of flour at Manti for the difference. When we got to Salt Creek, Now Nephi, the boys for the Las Vegas mission parted from us and we took the road for Manti where we arrived on the 19th of May.
On the 20th got my flour, repacked our wagon, got a steer from James Ivie to work with John McEwans cow, making four yoke to our wagon in which myself, Clinton Williams, John McEwan and Thomas G. Wilson were interested.
On the 21st moved out to Six Mile Creek in a storm. At night the company was organized with Alfred N Billings President, Joseph Rawlings Wagon Master and Oliver B. Huntington Clerk. At South Salt Creek, now Salina, we turned to the east, left the road and crossed the Wasatch Mountains to Huntington Creek where we met some Green River Indians who were very friendly and wished to pilot us across the Spanish Trail and save us two or three days. Some of our boys went with them as far as the ridge and we decided to go with them that way.
On the second day of June 1855 we reached Green River. River very high, large valley covered with large cottonwood trees. The next day being Sunday we held meeting and in the afternoon met with some of the Indians of the vicinity who made us welcome.
Fourth to eighth was occupied in crossing the river, broke camp at four-thirty PM and started for Grand River where we arrived on the tenth after a perilous journey for want of water, river very high and wind blowing a gale.
I took until the 15th of June before all got across the river on account of high winds. Sunday, the 17th, President Billings selected Joseph Rawlings and William Holden as his counsel and some arrangements were made as to farming. Joined a mess with James A. Ivie's making a total of seven men in all.
On the 18th we commenced farming. Some of the men pulling and burning sage while others plowed and helped to clear the land. Some were called to burn coal, one to make a grind-stone, others to building a dam across Elk Mountain Creek for the purpose of turning water for irrigation purposes as the farming land had to be irrigated previous to planting and sowing, etc.
On the 23rd we finished planting gardens, etc. Seven Indians came in and camped close by us. The next day being Sunday, we called in the natives and held meeting. They seemed pleased to have us among them. After they were told our business, etc., they became interested and wanted to learn to farm.
The fort was made at the foot of the East Mountains, near a spring not far from the dam in the river. Wagons, etc. were moved to the fort. was left in camp and worked on a saddle tree. On the 27th we began cutting logs for a corral which took us two days. We finished the corral in the afternoon. The Elk Mountain Chief (St. John) with three or four of his men, came down to see what was the matter in the north end of the valley. He saw great smoke (from the men burning sage). He did not know we were there until he came in sight of the wagons.
After a conversation between himself and the interpreter as to our business there on his domain, he expressed himself as well satisfied and said we were welcome to a share of his country; that we were the first white men (or red), that he had ever given any privileges to stop on his premises any longer than they had time to get away. He told them he had a dream the other night and that he saw the Mormons coming here to live on his land. How he went and got his men together and was going to drive them off, but the Great Spirit told him to let the Mormons alone, that he must be good friends and not fight any more, etc. He said he knew it was good for us to be there and wanted us to learn his wild boys how to plow, raise grain and work like we did.
Sunday July 1st, I went with Joseph Rawlings and others to accompany Chief St. John to his farm some twelve miles from our camp. His corn and melons looked fine though it had not been irrigated for some time. We assisted him in getting the water out of the creek and turned it upon his corn and then returned to camp leaving him well pleased.
On the 3rd William Hamblin and James Ivie commenced cutting hay for our mules and working on the farm. the next afternoon a company of St. John's Indians came in to trade. In the evening we held a council meeting for the purpose of taking into consideration holding a Fast Meeting on the morrow and decided we should.
Thursday, meeting at 10 o'clock, good speaking from different ones. All voted to hold Fast Meetings on the first Thursday of every month (as they do in the valley). The following day the teams commence hauling stone for the fort. I worked on the fort walls laying stone.
Sunday, the 8th, we held meeting in the afternoon. Good speaking in the afternoon from the boys. The following day I laid stone on the fort walls. As the walls began to rise, old Nicholas, (a relative of Chief St. John and others did not like our staying on this land and hauling stone and piling them up as we pleased. etc. (as they called it) which was soon settled satisfactorily. The next day large bands of Indians kept coming from all directions. The Arropean Chief of the Utah's came with the mail from Manti. The following three days we laid stone and rested part of the time.
Sunday the 15th, I wrote home several letters. Meeting was held in the afternoon with the natives. Chief Arropean gave them to understand our business here. With some good instructions relative to how they should do towards us. He spoke lengthy and with great power, which seemed to take deep root in the minds of the leading men of the natives.
On the 17th President Alfred N. Billings, John Lowery and myself finished laying our share of the fort stone wall. On the 18th I worked for Oliver B. Huntington laying stone. About noon a heavy shower of rain came down which done some good to our crops. In the evening I wrote home to my family. On the 19th Huntington's men finished their share of the fort. In the afternoon Bros. William R. Holden, John Crawford, James A Ivie, William Hamblin, John Lowry, William . Carroll, Stephen Moore and Columbus Perkins started for Great Salt Lake City with the mail. myself and others accompanied them as far as the river and ferried them across.
The next day I went to the river after some timber for a house. Hauling stone the following day to build a house while the boys finished hauling hay in the afternoon.
The 22nd being Sunday, we held meeting. I the afternoon several natives came forward for Baptism. We went to the river where President Billings baptized fifteen including several leading men, among them Chief St. John's brother and family, two of St. John's sons. St. John was absent at this time. On returning to the fort they were confirmed members of the Church. Some were ordained Elders and were set apart to ;preach to their tribe, etc.
Twenty third hauled stone for the house while four men went to the mountains to look for timber for a gate for the fort. I commenced laying stone on our house in the afternoon. The boys returned from the mountains the following day, reporting there was an abundance of timber, rather hard to get at. A road would have to be made.
On the 26th I finished laying stone on the house, put the roof on, which was made of willows covered with hay and dirt. We moved our things into it.
The 29th, Sunday, we held meetings with the Indians. Brother O. B. Huntington and John Clark presiding. The native brothers felt well toward us. A few visiting strangers seemed to take some interest in the work.
The next few days was spent making a saddle and covering it. I traded on of my oxen for a horse.
The 2nd of August being Fast Day we held a meeting, a good spirit prevailing. The next two days we made fence around our hay and I covered another saddle.
The 5th, Sunday, held meeting. Bros. Moses Draper and William Freeman presided. Had a good meeting. On the 6th in the afternoon, Spoods, one of Arropean's band returned from the Navajos; reported that they (the Navajos) were friendly and that four of their Chiefs were coming with Arropean.
On the 8th, Arropean in company with the Navajo Indians arrived at our fort. The object of their visit was to make a treaty with the Elk Mountain Utes that they might travel the road and visit the Mormon settlement. They seemed well pleased with us and wished to get acquainted with our habits and customs. In the afternoon we killed an ox and gave them that they might have something to treat upon.
The next day was occupied by the Indians in making a treaty which, I believe was made satisfactorily by both parties. Arropean started for Manti and the Navajos for their country.
The 12th, Sunday, meeting was held in the forenoon. In the afternoon I crossed the river with some of the boys expecting to meet the mail from Great Salt Lake City but returned without success. The next five days were spent making a saddle and a gate for the fort, which was hung (one side was made of cottonwood logs hewn to eight inches thick, doubled and pinned together).
Eighteenth we hung the other side in the morning. In the afternoon I was shoeing my horse and fixing for going home with the mail. The next morning John Lowry, John Crawford and Stephen Moore returned from Great Salt Lake City bringing the mail. I received two letters from home. It being Sunday, we held meeting with the natives. A number was called upon (all those that had horses sufficient) to take the mail back to the valleys in accordance with instructions of President Brigham Young. I being one of the number, on the 20th we commenced fixing for a start on the morrow.
I traded another ox for a horse, but in consequence of it not being in good condition, I left it with John Clark until I returned, which I expected would be in about five weeks. At half past twelve o'clock I started in company with fifteen others for Great Salt Lake City. We traveled to Quincy Rock Springs and camped. Had a little trouble with some of our animals, they being wild. At night I stood guard with Joseph Rawlings and others around the horses.
The 22nd, packed our horses and traveled thirty six miles to Green River, crossed and camped on the west bank. 23rd, five of our company took the trail for Manta while the remaining ten took the Spanish Fork trail for Utah County, and traveled thirty miles to Duchesne Fork on the Green River and camped, muddy water and poor grass. On the 24th we traveled twenty four miles down Spanish Fork Canyon and camped on the Whitbeck Creek for the night. The 25th traveled through several deep ravines in Duchesne Fork, distance of 24 miles and camped at foot of high bluffs. The 26th, we traveled nineteen miles, killed a mountain sheep on our way and camped in the tops of the mountains.
On the 27th, traveled thirty one miles across mountains, down canyon forks, reaching the rim of the basin, then fourteen miles down Spanish Fork Canyon an camped for the night. The 28th, traveled on down the canyon to Springville. Here I left the company and rode on to Provo, where I arrived about 8 o'clock. I found my family all well and in good spirits. Remained at home the next three or four days receiving visits from my friends.
September 1st, I went to Spanish Fork after a horse I left there on the 28th. Hunted all day without success. Spent the night with my Uncle William Pace. The 2nd, I got Wilson Pace to assist me in hunting. After searching the brush several hours we found the horse in the field near the river. Being near Payson, where mother lived, we concluded to go there for dinner. I found my mother and family well, spent a couple of hours and started home, arriving after dark.
I spent the remainder of the month at home settling accounts against the Provo Music Hall of which I was a partner, also paid Zemira Palmer two hundred dollars for an adobe house and two lots. October 1st I began to prepare for going back to Elk Mountains in a few days.
The 2nd, an express came in from Manti stating the Indians had become hostile on Grand River and drove them from the mission, killing three of our boys and taking possession of the for, provisions, cattle, clothing and everything, the boys barely escaping with animals enough to get away on. That they were in a bad condition and were not able to get home having driven without eating for several days.
On the 3rd, I got Joseph Clark to take his wagon and horses and go with me to their assistance. We started about noon. I rode out on horse back for the purpose of assisting in driving their loose animals. Called at Springville and got Bro. J. G.. Metcalf to accompany me on horse back. Arrived at Payson after dark and stayed all night at Mother's. The 4th we prepared to start early when brothers Orson Miles and Brigham Lamb came in from Manti informing us the boys were getting along well and would not need the assistance of a team. I then selected brother Joseph Clark, J. G. Metcalf and myself. We went on horseback with some provisions for them and met them about two miles beyond Summit Creek. Bros. Clinton Williams, Stephen Moore and John Clark gave them some refreshments and returned to Payson. Had dinner at Mother's and came on to Provo in the evening.
The 6th, I went to Great Salt Lake City with Stephen Moore. Arrived about dark. The 7th and 8th, attended Conference and was informed we would not go back this season. Returned home on the 9th, staying at home until the 16th. I went to Payson with my wife to get my corn down from there, which I had raised on my land.
The 18th, returned home this afternoon. C. A. Huntington, William H. Sterret and Richard James of the Elk Mountain Mission arrived in Provo, they having undertaken to come on the Spanish Fork Trail from Green River, but lost their way. Was out twenty four days, having eaten one dog and the greater portion of a horse in consequence of lack of provisions. the 19th, assisted in getting a team to take the boys home and get Clinton Williams to take them down to Great Salt Lake City.
The 20th, I attended a reorganization of the Utah County Mililtia and was elected Colonel of the 1st Regiment of the Cavalry by a unanimous vote. The 22nd, drilled the Regiment horseback in forenoon. In afternoon inspection of arms, etc.
The remainder of the month laying adobes for different individuals.
On November 4th, my father, James Pace arrived from England, having been gone three years on a mission. At home until the 8th. I went to Payson with my family on a visit to see my father and family. Spent the 9th and returned home on the 10th. Continued laying adobes until December 20th when I had to leave off in consequences of bad weather. Dec. 25th I mad a party at an expense of Seventy Five dollars for supper, etc. Had my father and family, C. B. Hancock and others to attend it at the Music Hall.
December 26th, I commenced doing business for Alexander William's, Sen. selling goods until February 4th. I went to Salt Lake City in the company with my wife, father and mother for the purpose of attending the Mormon Battalion festival. We stopped at the home of Thomas S. William's.
On the 6th we attended the Ball and enjoyed the entertainment. February 7th, I bought a lot of merchandise from Levi Stewart and Co., in exchange for the Music Hall. Seven hundred fifty dollars for my interest and returned to Provo on the 9th putting goods in store and selling them. Continued in the store until the latter part of February.
About the middle of this month a band of "Utah" Indians under command of Tintic and Squash Head and their Chiefs became somewhat troublesome in killing cattle, stealing horses, etc. Upon the same being made known to the United States Judges, writs were issued for their apprehension and a posse summoned of some 40 persons under direction of the U. S. Deputy Marshall, Thomas S. Johnson to take their Chiefs and some others and bring them up for trial. On the 21st of February a detachment of the above Posse, under George Parish came upon Tintic's camp with the intention of taking him. But the Indians arose in arms to defend him, where-upon a fight ensued which resulted in the killing of one white man, one Indian and a squaw. The remainder of the Indians got away without any serious injury.
This only helped to kindle the flame in the ignorant Lamanites. They likewise went to a herd ground from that place and on the morning of the 22nd they killed two Carson brothers and their comrade, young Hunsacher who was there herding cattle. They horribly mutilated their bodies, drove off a number of cattle and horses to the mountains. This day an express was sent to the Governor to know what was best to do in regard to the matter. Consequently, orders were issued to Brigadier General Peter W. Conover to call out the Militia of Utah county and follow the Indians into the mountains and return the cattle to their owners.
On the 26th I received the following orders from General Conover:
Orders: Headquarters Brigade Secretary
Office Provo City, Feb 26th 1856
To: Col. Wm. B. Pace
You are hereby ordered to call out from your Regiment, one-hundred men, well armed, mounted and provisioned with ten days provisions, to march at 9 o'clock on the 27th. The remainder to be ready to march at a moments notice to any point where their services may be required.
By order of Peter W. Conover
Brigadier General, Command
Brigade Secretary and Quarter Master
Pursuant to the above order I made the following selections:
Twenty five men from Company A. Twenty five men from Company B. Fifteen men from Company E. Ten men from Company C. and twenty five men from Company D.
After issuing the above order an express came in from Captain Willis's Command, (that were in search of some cattle that were scattered on the west side of Utah Lake), the Hunsacker camp had been raided by some of Tintic's band (as previously mentioned). Two Carson brothers and young Hunsacker were killed and several horses and one hundred fifty head of the cattle driven off by the Indians. The General ordered me to send Captain Sords of Company D around the north end of the Lake to scour the County and if possible to find where the Indians had gone and check them until the main Command overtook him.
We crossed the lake on ice and camped in the canyon west of Goshen. The baggage was sent to Cedar Fort for want of roads. We followed the Indians (who killed Hunsacker and the Carson brothers and stole their cattle) to Homansville and Eureka Canyons through snow from four to six feet deep on a biscuit apiece for breakfast, or what could be found in our scant supplies. That night we camped at Shivery Point without supper or blankets. We must either catch the stock next day or starve. We caught the stock next night near Sevier Lake. The Indians took fright and left the stock behind except a few saddle horses and the expedition returned with the stock.
* * * * * *
The following was in a diary of William B. Pace:
Was Col. of Nauvoo Legion, 1st Regiment Cavalry, Utah Militia District, Nov. 1855. August 1st 1857, was given notice soldiers from the east were coming to invade the Territory. Nov. 9th 1857, was given orders from Col. Commanding Officer N. V. Jones to march immediately with forces under his command for defense of Echo Canyon.
May 1st 1864, was granted a license with Haws to work as butchers in the State for one year.
Part of a copied letter written to James Jack Esq. by William Byram Pace while confined in the Utah Penitentiary for unlawful cohabitation follows:
James Jack Esq.
Dear Bro: -
Enclosed please find memoranda of sentence of Henry Sudweeks, James H. Jenkins, Hans Jespersen, Rasmus Justesen, Albert G. Slater, Charles A. Terry, John A. Powell and Thomas Sterland. If not sufficiently explicit will endeavor to make them so later on.
Personally, I have the next longest time yet to serve on the list, hence, will submit the following, though not to be used, if in any manner liable to check or hinder the release of older men.
I first entered the service of the United States when about 15 years of age as servant to Lieutenant James Pace, Co. E. Mormon Battalion in July 1846 (Mexican War) and marched on foot from Fort Leavenworth Missouri to Los Angeles, California.
Upon the organization of the Territory of Utah, I became identified with the Militia, grading from First Lieutenant to Brigadier General in a few years. During the Walker Indian War of 1853 and 4, I was in active service the most of two summers and in two regiments. In the Tintic War of 1856, was Col. of Cavalry and with part of my Regiment, succeeded in rescuing a large herd of stock from Tintic's band of Indians near Sevier Lake. From the opening of the Black Hawk War in 1865, I was in active service over three years, rendering aid and protection to the settlements of Utah, Sanpete, Sevier, Piute and Juab Counties for all of which service, in Utah, covering a period of many years I never received and remuneration. (Balance of letter was lost or burned).
Copy of letter written (or talk given) by William B. Pace to his comrades:
My dear Comrades:-
I am pleased to meet you on this, the 12th Annual anniversary of the Veterans of the "Utah Indian Wars". While I am not quite as active or able to move around, as I would wish, yet I retain a vivid memory of the past, of the many hardships endured and difficulties surmounted in the various efforts of establishing and maintaining settlements in the Rocky Mountains, which as made it possible for the present and future development of the Great State of Utah.
For this, the country is immensely indebted to you and your associates. You, through the dictates of that divinely inspired man, Brigham Young, subdued the savage and war-like Indians and made it possible for flourishing towns and cities to be built and occupied in peace throughout all the valleys of the mountains. You are virtually responsible for the settlement or colonization of Nevada, Wyoming, Idaho and many other flourishing mountain states. While they [others] may have encountered the savage, Government came to their rescue, put the Indians to flight and left them in peaceable possession of the country, privileged to mine, raise stock, farm or follow the vent of their inclinations.
You were quite differently situated, were in the middle of the Desert, near one thousand miles from aid, in any direction, surrounded by the most savage and unscrupulous Indians, all determined on your extermination. Did the government come to your aid? No!!
You were poor, destitute of clothing and suitable arms and outfit needed, with no resource, but you had to simply furnish your own horse, saddle and bridle, or go on foot; your own gun, ammunition and rations or go hungry. You were "Minute Men" then and moved at a moments notice to the aid of any settlement, no matter how remote. This you done without pay or reward, or even the hope thereof, so far as this world goes. Truly you ought to be remembered. Thus it was, that through your efforts, under a divine providence, the first settlements were established and maintained in Utah.
Now had you failed, had the efforts to colonize what is now known as the State of Utah failed, when would the surrounding mountain states have come into existence? Probably, not in this age, hence you are entitled to the credit of being the means of populating this whole mountain region. Well, there is some satisfaction in this, if you never get any recognition or pay from the government.
While I do not wish to censure government, the fault properly belongs to ourselves for not sending the right kind of men to Congress, who have the "poor man's" interest at heart and are willing to devote at least three minutes of the their term to the men who made it possible for this Mountain Region to be occupied. Beware of the congressmen who on the eve of an election, get a bill before either house of Congress, in behalf of the "poor soldier". That is filed to catch votes. It will not be called up again only to be laid aside, even if re-elected. If they meant business, they would commence earlier in the term. Now all is peace. You may travel from the Colorado River, on the South, to the northern extremities of the State and not be molested by and Indian, if you behave yourself.
How was it in 1853, when Keel was shot down by Indians at Payson, while on guard and Chief Walker, with 400 or 500 warriors known to be camped within three miles up Payson Canyon? Payson had but few in numbers then, families were rushed to the school house and men distributed to protect them expecting and attack before daylight. But you came to the rescue and Walker drew off into San Pete County.
Then came the rush to protect the weaker towns and ranches of San Pete; the engagement of Major Noland with the Indians on San Pete Mountains. When Walker again drew off, threatening the Southern Settlements and you were sent home to "build a Fort wall" for the protection of your families or parents, stand guard and hold yourselves in readiness to go to the relief of Cedar City, Parowan or Fillmore and probably the next day or two would see you on your way, leaving home and all that was near and dear to the watch care of a kind Providence and a few decrepit old men.
This, many of you will readily call to mind. Then in the Tintic war of 1855 and 6, and especially in February 1856, when you crossed Utah Lake on the ice, sent your baggage from near where Goshen now stands to "Cedar Fort" and follow the Indians who had killed the Carson Boys, Hunsacker and others, and fled with the stock on the west side of Utah Lake, through what is now Homansville and Eureka Canyons, through four to six feet of snow. This you done on a biscuit apiece or whatever you could snatch from an exhausted or nearly depleted breakfast table in camp.
As you could not make connections with baggage (for impassable mountains) you were compelled to "Bivouac" on what was named "Shivery Point", in West Tintic, without supper or blankets. The next day, it became a question of catching the stock or perishing in the desert.
Well, you got the stock at night, near the Sink of the Sevier. Then you had 'beef' alone, broiled on sage brush fire, without any salt, until you got back to Nephi, when the people there came to the rescue. Many incidents similar could be mentioned, but I will not detain you.
Black Hawk War was prolonged from July 1865 until 1872 when a Treaty was finally made with the last band of Utah Indians at Fish Lake. Many of you served through the war and certainly are entitled to some remuneration, but if you never get it, console yourselves with the fact that you have aided in paving the way for flourishing towns, cities and states and railroads to be built up throughout this entire mountain region. I am proud to be numbered with you, to see the prosperity that follows your labors, though we may not enjoy an abundance of its results.
Thanking you for your kind attention, I am truly yours. W. B.. Pace.
Some of the activities of William B. Pace:
He was appointed Assistant Assessor for division 4 of the Territory to Utah 9 Oct. 1866. Assistant Assessor for Internal Revenues for 4th Division of District of Utah 11 Oct. 1866. Appointed Assistant Assessor in Utah, Wasatch, Juab and San Pete Counties 6 May 1868. Councilman, 10 Feb. 1874 of Provo (1 term). Councilman 15 Feb. 1876. House of Representatives - member from August 1865-1878 inclusive. Elected delegate to help draft the State Constitution 9 Feb 1872. in City Council from 1861 to 1877. Elected Brigadier General 8 May 1866 1st Brigade Militia of Utah Military District.
In 1880 William B. Pace was called to go to Southern Utah to help develop the Iron Mines.
Emma A. Empey speaks of William B. pace as being active in mining and leader in many activities in St. George, Utah and in the vicinity during his sojourn there. He led the Orchestra and directed many plays and entertainment's.
The Pinafore was the most successful musical entertainment ever staged in St. George up to that date. He wrote much of this music to suit the people whom he had to train for it. He gave freely of his time to develop the resources of the Community in which he lived.
He married Maria Empey Gould 20 Feb. 1880, by whom he had four children. She died 3 May 1891. He returned to Provo to live. He made another trip to St. George and while there suffered a paralytic stroke 18 July 1900. As soon as he was able to travel, he came back to his home in Provo.
In 1902 (because of the care he needed due to his infirmity) he came to live with his son, Sidney A. Pace and family on Provo Bench, now Orem City. He died there June 18, 1907, five years and eleven months after his first stroke. During this entire time his right hand and arm was useless. He learned to walk about the house and yard, with the aid of a chair or a cane, dragging his "game leg", as he called it, slowly about.
He was the father of nineteen children. He was a kind and affectionate father and friend. He died, as he had lived, a faithful member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, honored and respected by all who knew him.
His first wife, Espy Jane Williams, died 16 January 1910 at her old home in Provo. She was the mother of fifteen children. As the development of the Iron mines and other projects for the development of Southern Utah demanded her husband's time and attention, it fell to the lot of this good mother to rear, educate and care for her family. She did this faithfully, with the help of her children, eleven of these she raised to maturity.
Following are letters and notes from the diary of William B. Pace:
Col. William B. Pace received a letter written on October 16, 1857 at 9 AM from James C. Snow, E. H. Blackburn and L. L.. Woods, as to supplies needed for a Company out on maneuvers. As no oats were available, they started immediately to thresh, and had grain ready to leave within an hour. This was sent by ox team as the horses were all used with that threshing. They were also told ---"In conclusion we would say---Brethren be punctual and let every man do his duty. Be united and forget not your God or your Religion, that when you return you may return with the honor due the soldiers of the Kingdom of God, with laurels upon your heads which is our prayer continually. May God bless you and prosper you and return you safe to your families and friends. Your Brethren in the Gospel".
26 October 1857, Col. William B. Pace received a letter telling him to take command of Major's Hyde and Thurber's battalion and proceed without delay to the completion of defenses up the canyon to Big Mountain. Sent by N. V. Jones, Col., Commanding Officer.
September 25, 1861 The Marshall Band was organized. This included Dominicus Carter and William Carter playing Fife; Shepherd Glazier, Sidney Worsley, Elliot A. Newell, l. o. Glazier, James Garlic, John B. Smith and Walter J. Winsor were Drummers with Dominicus Carter as Major.
October 4, 1861 A Brass Band was, also, organized by Col. William B. Pace. It was under the direction of one Captain, one 2nd Lieutenant and one 1st Lieutenant.
Orders were sent to Headquarters that District Court Martial was to convene may 14, 1864 at 9 AM to try such persons as to be brought before it. The Court consisted of Major I. A. Duke, 1st Bat. Infantry; Major W. A. Nuttall, 2nd Bat. Infantry; Major R. T. Thomas, 3rd Bat. Infantry; Captain I. W. Bell, Co. A. Infantry; Captain T. J. Patten, Co. H. Infantry; Captain John Leetham, Special Judge Advocate.
Orders were sent July 22, 1864 by Col. W. B. Pace to all branches of the Militia to assemble at Temple Square in Salt Lake City and 5 AM July 25, 1864 to help in the celebration of the entrance of the Pioneers in Utah. A mock battle was staged around Temple Square with all men participating.
October 18, 1864 Orders were sent by W. B. Pace to the City Military District. They were to report for full dress inspection and review Nov. 3, 4 and 5th at Springville. All members were to be present.
November 12, 1864. It was decided that a book on Rifle and Light Infantry Tactics should be published for all companies, so they would all have the same rules. After many setbacks a book was published which cost for each copy $5.00 or its equivalent of one bushel of wheat. Orders were received faster than the books could be printed.
October 10, 1865 Orders were sent to Col. W. B. Pace that there would be a General Muster of the Militia of Utah County on the North East Bench for Provo City October 25th at 10 AM. They were to be armed and equipped as the law required having ammunition and provisions to last four days. Provisions included horses, wagons, tents and etc. leaving enough guards behind to guard the city during the four days of training and encampment. The order was signed:
Daniel H. Wells, Lt. General, Salt Lake City, Utah
October 27, 1865 In a letter to Col. Pace, word was received to inform Col. Pace of the death of two men and two women near Ephraim and three men in the canyon, and about fifty head of cattle and horses driven off by Blackhawk and party, without leaving an Indian in the hands of our people. The Indians selected the stock and the officers could not get the men to leave town and go try to stop them. Work was sent to Manti or Spring Town of this. If word had been sent as soon as it happened, the Indians could have been cut off and captured. It was too late when word finally came. The Indians were very bold. The letter was written by R. N. Allred of Manti.
In November 1865 William B. Pace was elected to the State Legislature.
March 14, 1866, Col. Pace received a letter from W. S. Snow, General from Nephi, that he had taken Sampitch, Indian Chief, and eight of his men, prisoners after a skirmish and all was quiet.
April 15, 1866 Word was received from W. S. Snow at Manti, that Chief Sampitch and seven of his men escaped into the mountains, and that a ten year old boy had been shot with six arrows. The boy had made his way home and was doing well. Sampitch leaving one dead Indian behind him in his escape.
April 18, 1866 People outside Provo City were cautioned to live close together as a protection against hostile Indians.
April 23, 1866 The different Counties were organized into Regiments of the Nauvoo Legion. The Utah County Regiment was commanded by Brigadier General Aaron Johnson, Col. William B. Pace and Col. W. Chipman.
April 29 1866 Col. Pace sent orders to Col. W. Chipman to take from his company fifteen good serviceable men to go into the field against the Indians. They were to be equipped with wagons, horses, tents, etc., and supplies to last forty days. They were also to take guns, sabers, pistols and at least 100 round of ammunition for each man.
April 30, 1866 Col. Pace was given orders to proceed without delay to the scene of Indian difficulties in Sanpete County to assist General W. S. Snow. These orders came from St. Gen. Daniel H. Wells in Salt Lake City.
May 8, 1866 Col. W. B. Pace was advanced to Brigadier General of the Utah County Militia.
May 22, 1866 Word was received from William C. McClellan that a large force of Indians was up Spanish Fork Canyon. Some twenty two of them had come down to Spanish Fork Bench and killed a herdsman, cutting out his heart and mutilating his body. The Indians ran off the cattle. Three head were found later.
May 24, 1866 Word was received from A. F. MacDonald, Lt. Co., that Chief Tabby offered to make Peace if they would deliver General Snow to him - then he might talk of a peace treaty. He sent word they had better keep men out of the mountains until peace was declared. Also, that Chief Tabby had formed a union with seven tribes or branches and would take no part with Blackhawk who had three tribes and was causing trouble in the southeast part of the state. Chief Tabby and tribes had gone back to Duchesne and 150 head of beef were being sent to them, as President Brigham Young said to feed them instead of fight them. The people were nervous and whenever they saw a shadow of sage brush or a blanket in the brush they thought it was an Indian. One time Bishop Johnson saw two blanket wrapped figures sitting down in the brush and thought he was trapped and couldn't get away. When he approached them he saw two little herd boys watching the cattle.
June 29, 1866 A cavalry troop was sent to Circleville to protect the settlers there from Indians on their return to Manti.
July 1, 1866 A trap was set for Indians, with other Militia groups trying to drive them out of the mountains and into the trap.
May 11, 1867 Brig. Gen. W. B. Pace was given command of Sanpete and Piute Military Districts by General Daniel H. Wells
May 12, 1867 Word was received that some horses had been stolen at Fountain Green by Indians. A small group of men were sent out to track them. They tracked them around the mountains to Thistle Valley and the Spanish Fork River, where they found many tracks of moccasins (women and children) and one pony track along with the horse tracks. They decided that the hoses had been taken to help tat the women and children to Chief Tabby's camp and only two horses had been taken.
June 2, 1867 Major J. W. Vance and Sgt. Houtz were returning to camp at Manti and were ambushed by Indians and killed at Twelve Mile Creek. Captain Miles and Tanner, also present made their escape. Major Vance had been instructed to take at least ten men and had taken only four, thus met with disaster.
June 14, 1867 A group of men were sent out from Gunnison to cut telegraph poles to build a telegraph line from Manti to Gunnison, with Lt. W. S. Tanner in Command. The week of June 18th 1867, the telegraph line was completed to Gunnison.
August 13, 1867 At Spring Town they had another brush with the Indians. The Indians ambushed them when the men were on the way out haying. Brother James Meek was killed and Brother Johanson was badly wounded. Thirty head of horses and colds were run off. The Indians killed eleven of the horses. The men who went after the Indians managed to get five or six head back.
Sept 23, 1867 Fines could be paid, by they men who were court marshaled, in cash, grain, molasses or lumber at the Tithing Office. They would receive a receipt that they could send to the Commander of the Military District, Major General Aaron Johnson.
November 1867 The officers who worked with or under Brigadier General W. B Pace were as follows: First Brigade --- 2nd Division
A. F. [Alexander Finlay] MacDonald Adjutant. George W. Bean 2nd Milt.
John Riggs Surgeon John Leetham Surgeons Aide
T. E. Flemming Surgeons Aide L. John Nuttall Col. 1st Infantry.
James E. E. Daniels Lieutenant Col. Samuel L. Jones Adjutant.
B, K. Bullock Surgeon Joseph Nuttall Musician
Peter Stubbs Commissary W. Chipman Col.
P. H. Allred Lt. Col. Isreal Evans Adjutant.
Joseph Clark Commissary Edison King Chief of Music
Hansen Walker Chaplin
Dec. 17, 1867 Court Martial was held at Fort Gunnison with W. B. Pace officiating.
July 15, 1868 Word was received from John R, Winder that they had had a brush with the Indians. Twelve men had a narrow escape with their lives, at Ephriam.
One of the ways the army had of disciplining and keeping the men busy, when not on active duty and were confined to the fort, especially in the Provo Fort (that stood where Pioneer Park is located at 5th West and Center), was to move a pile of rocks or adobe bricks, which were kept piled in some corner of the fort for such emergencies, to the other side of the fort. General Pace said, "When the men were busy they were happy and this work kept them out of trouble". They were not allowed to gamble or drink at all. If they did so they ended up in the Guard House, or some times they were dishonorably discharged and drummed out of camp when they persisted in doing so.
The program for the July 4, 1869 celebration reads as follows: At daylight on Monday, July 5, 1869, the residents of Provo City and vicinity will be awakened by peals of artillery from Battery No. 9, stationed on Temple Square, under the direction of Captain Caleb W. Haws. At sunrise a National salute of 13 guns will be fired. Followed by hoisting the Colors and music from the Brass and Martial Bands parading the streets.
At 7:30 AM three guns sill be fired and the church bell rung, as a signal for the citizens to assemble upon Temple Square. At 8:00 AM the procession will be formed in the following order, by Col. L. J. Nuttall, Marshall of the day, assisted by Isaac Bullock and William W. Haws, Esq's.:
1st. Advance Guard of Cavalry under Lt. W. H. Grey.
2nd. Brass Band under Joseph Nuttall.
3rd Mayor and Municipal Authorities
4th Orator of the Day and Chaplin
5th Visitors and Committee of Arrangements
6th Veterans of Mormon Battalion and Pioneers, with banner under C. Colton
7th Martial Band under Captain Shepherd Glazier
8th 1st Cavalry, dismounted, with Colors, under Capain A.G. Connover
9th Infantry with Colors under Lt. Col. J. E. Daniels
10th Artillery with Colors under Major R. L. Thomas
11th Provo Meeting House Choir under Professor Daniels
12th Citizens (Gentlemen and Ladies) under T. Allman, Esq..
13th Danish Choir under Professor Mons Peterson
14th Sunday School and Day Schools under Supt. A. H. Noon, and their respective teachers.
15th Juvenile Infantry under Captain C. D. Miller.
The procession being formed will move down Main Street to 2nd South Street, thence West to 5th West Street, thence North to Center Street, thence East to the Bowery where all will be comfortable seated and the Mayor and Lt. Orator, Chaplin and Distinguished Visitors conducted to the Stand.
The Assembly being called to order.
1st National Anthem will be sung by Provo Meeting House Choir.
2nd Prayer by Chaplin J. P. R. Johnson
3rd Hymns by the Danish Choir.
4th Declaration of Independence will be read by P. M. Wentz, Esq.
5th Star Spangled Banner by Brass Band
6th Oration by A. F. MacDonald -- Orator of the Day.
7th Yankee Doodle by Martial Band
8th Address from Honorable A. O. Smoot
Miscellaneous addresses, song, toast, interspersed with music by the Bands will be the order until 12:00 o'clock Noon, when the assembly will be dismissed until 2:00 PM.
At 2:00 PM. all the Juveniles will have the privilege of participating in a "Saw Dust" dance, under the Bowery at which all musicians are especially solicited to be in punctual attendance prepared to supply the demand in excellent music suited for the occasion.
At sunset Firing of Artillery and Lowering of Colors.
the evening will be spent in Balls and Parties in the several halls at the discretion of those interested.
W. B. Pace
G. G. Bywater
H. H. Cluff
Wm. D. Roberts
Committee of Arrangement
June 12, 1970 The grasshoppers were very bad again in Utah County and on south through Manti. Very little grain was grown and the range was all dried up. The Stock would have to be driven to Sevier to find feed.
From August to October 1872 The Indians became hostile again, causing Companies to be on the alert, guarding towns, homes and live stock.
August 16, 1872 Three men were murdered, 125 horses stolen by Indians. Over one hundred lodges were seen thirty miles east of Gunnison.
In a letter written December 4, 1873, A. F. MacDonald wrote saying that the Tabernacle was nearing completion at St. George and arrangements were being made to rush work on the Temple there.
In March 1852, the Territorial Militia was organized and named the Nauvoo Legion. The Legion was maintained in good working order by frequent drilling and yearly reviews until 1870 when Governonr Shaffer issued his edict forbidding further gatherings of this nature. This action virtually disbanded the organization although it was not officially dissolved until March 1877.
In 1884, as the Indian troubles were slacking up, W. B. Pace started to do mining, locating claims throughout Utah and into Nevada, teaming up with T. Pierpont. The ore was hauled in wagons--two tons each, trailing one wagon behind the other, with four horses pulling them.
End of exerpts from the files of William B. Pace.
Lucy Agnes White Pace, wife of Sidney Alexander Pace wrote the following:
In October of 1855, William Byram Pace was elected Colonel of the first regiment of Cavalry and did much drill work. On Nov. 4, 1855 his father returned from England after more than a three year mission. In December, the same year he went into the mercantile business which he followed for some time. He was a superintendent of three East Co-op. About the 21 of February 1856 the Ute Indians under Tintic Squash Head, their chief, began to be troublesome and caused much disturbance. One Indian, one squaw and one white man were killed and the Indians finally succeeded in getting away without any further serious injury. On the 22nd they made a raid on a herd in Rush Valley, killed three of the herders, two Carson brothers and young Hunsaker, mutilated their bodies and drove off a number of cattle and horses. The Militia of Utah County under the command of Col. William Byram Pace was called out and succeeded in surprising and overtaking the Indians at Sevier Lake. They took flight and left the stock behind except a few saddle horses.
From the opening of the Black Hawk War in 1855 he was elected Brigadier General and was in active service over three years, lending aid and protection to the settlements of Utah, Sanpete, Sevier, Juab and Piute Counties. The biggest battle of the Black Hawk War was at Gravelly Fort near Salina which had been abandoned when Brigham Young had ordered scattered committees on the Sevier to consolidate. Here Black Hawk matched wits with Gen. William Byram Pace on 10 June 1856. The General beat Black Hawk to the Fort, as the chief and his braves were trying to cross the river with the five hundred head of stolen cattle. The battle was bitter and Black Hawk was wounded, but he escaped with most of the stock. In August 1857 Black Hawk came to the Unitah Reservation and asked the agent to give him a hair cut. This was a token he was going to be a white man's Indian in the future.
William Byram Pace served fourteen years in the State Legislature. He was in the council ten years, from 1861 to 1867. In 1880 he was called to go and develop the iron mining of Southern Utah.
Additional note by his Great Great Granddaughter, Mignon R. Johnson
William B. Pace built the first smelter on the Santa Clara River just a few miles north of Shivwits on the road towards Gunlock, Utah. From a spring couple of miles above the smelter, he built a rock canal that can still be seen in 1999. It follows the contours of the hill down to the spillway above where the smelter was. Another smelter was built on the same spot after his was abandoned, so it is hard to tell which was which, but the signs of the spillway are still there. If you park your car you can go down the hill to the river and see some of the remaining columns or abutments.